Whether you are a professional or amateur scientist, engineer or mathematician, if you need to make numerical calculations and plots quickly and easily, then PDL (Perl Data Language) is certainly one of the best free software tools to use. PDL has everything that similar high-level, proprietary, numerical calculation languages (like IDL or MATLAB) have. And it certainly comes with all the features you would expect to have in a numerical calculation package.

# Introduction

In this article, I will explore a fun application of the numerical calculation field: the Mandelbrot fractal. To generate fractals you need to perform several computations and then plot the results. The examples that follow are also simple enough for anyone to follow, but have enough features to get a feel for the language used. For this particular task, high-level, numerical calculation languages are the ideal tool. They provide a rapid development cycle due to its high-level nature. It is also easy to generate quality plots with these tools. And, as you shall see later, the speed performance penalty you pay by using these languages is relatively minor.

The Mandelbrot fractal example reviewed in this article will be developed in both proprietary and free software languages: PDL, IDL, MATLAB and Octave. This will allow us to compare them qualitatively in a table highlighting the pros and cons of each language. Also, a quantitative benchmark comparison will be done to illustrate the speed of each one of the languages. For comparison purposes, C and FORTRAN code for these examples will also be shown.

# The Mandelbrot fractal

**The Mandelbrot set is one of the most popular fractals**

According to Wikipedia, a fractal is a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be subdivided into parts, each of which is (at least approximately) a reduced size copy of the whole. The Mandelbrot set is one of the most popular fractals. In this article I will color the fractals in a slightly different and artistic way (as seen in figure 1). The Mandelbrot fractal is generated by iterating a mathematical relationship between complex numbers (see Complex Number Arithmetic for a quick introduction to complex numbers). Starting with a zero value of a complex variable (`z`

), the fractal is materialised by iterating the following assigment:

z = z * z + k,

...where `k`

is a complex number which is kept constant throughout the iterations. The final value of `z`

depends very much on the value of the complex number `k`

. For some values of `k`

, the final `z`

converges to a certain finite value and for some others, `z`

diverges to infinity. To avoid numerical problems with the divergences in the calculations we will introduce a programming trick that consists of constraining the `z`

values between -5 and 5 after each iteration. In the final fractal image, the x axis will represent the real values of `k`

and the y axis its imaginary values. In the Mandelbrot fractal, normally the divergent `z`

values are given one color and the convergent ones another. The frontier between one color and the other is a fractal. Here I will color the images using a rainbow palette to plot the values of the formula:

image = log (sqrt(Re(z) * Re(z) + Im(z) * Im(z)) + 1)

...where `Re`

and `Im`

denote the real and imaginary part of `z`

respectively. The final Madelbrot fractal image can be seen in figure 1.

# PDL

**PDL is an extension of the Perl language for number crunching and scientific plotting**

PDL is an extension of the Perl language for number crunching and scientific plotting. Because of its Perl heritage it has the clean syntax of a well settled programming language. You can also use one of the wealth of available module-packages in the Perl archive (CPAN), to use the language for other purposes like database access, date handling, inter-process communication, GUI toolkit, just to name a few.

## Installing PDL

Unfortunately, PDL is not installed by default on many of the popular GNU/Linux distributions. Even worse, some distributions have the PDL related packages missing or partly broken. If you are running a GNU/Linux distribution based on Debian (Ubuntu, Knoppix, etc.), and have access to the regular Debian repositories, it is fairly easy to install PDL. You should install the `pdl`

, `pgplot5`

and `pgperl`

packages in order to follow the examples in this article. This can be done (as root) via the usual:

apt-get install pdl pgplot5 pgperl

If this is not your case, follow the instructions in [Installing PDL the quick and easy way](http://wiki.jach.hawaii.edu/pdl_wiki-bin/wiki/Getting_Started_with_PDL/Installing_PDL_the quick and easy way).

## The PDL command line

Once you have PDL installed you should be able to run it in the command line. For this just type `perldl`

on a terminal.

It should greet you with a message like:

[email protected]:~$ perldl perlDL shell v1.33 PDL comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. For details, see the file 'COPYING' in the PDL distribution. This is free software and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions, see the same file for details. ReadLines, NiceSlice, MultiLines enabled Reading PDL/default.perldlrc... Found docs database /usr/local/lib/perl/5.8.4/PDL/pdldoc.db Type 'help' for online help Type 'demo' for online demos Loaded PDL v2.4.2 perldl>

You can try out now some of PDL features by typing demo after the PDL prompt:

perldl> demo

This will provide you with a list of demos you can try. You should also check that the plotting library you will be using inside PDL is working properly. To do this type:

perldl> demo pgplot

Some nice graphs should appear on your screen. If this is not the case have a look in [Installing PDL the quick and easy way](http://wiki.jach.hawaii.edu/pdl_wiki-bin/wiki/Getting_Started_with_PDL/Installing_PDL_the quick and easy way).

In the next section, I will explain how to generate the Mandelbrot fractal step-by-step using the PDL command line, so you can learn the basics of PDL.

## The Mandelbrot fractal with PDL

Perl scalars are usually denoted by a variable name preceded by a dollar sign. These variables can contain only one object which can be a string, a more complex object, or, as is in this particular case, a numerical value,

perldl> $npts=200; perldl> $niter=10;

Here the number of points along the side of the square fractal image and the number of iterations for the Mandelbrot calculation are stored in their respective variables. We can have a look at the contents of these variables with the print function:

perldl> print $npts; 200

The basic building blocks of the PDL language are n-dimensional arrays usually referred to as “piddles”. A piddle is stored in a scalar Perl variable, like the real and imaginary part of `z`

, `$zRe`

and `$zIm`

:

perldl> $zRe=zeroes(double,$npts,$npts); perldl> $zIm=zeroes(double,$npts,$npts);

In this case, two-dimensional, double-precision, square arrays of zeroes are generated with the `zeroes`

function. Its size is given by the `$npts`

variable.

You can now generate the matrices that will represent the `k`

constant by using the `xlinvals`

and `ylinvals`

functions. These functions assign different values for each column or row respectively within a certain range.

perldl> $kRe=$zRe->xlinvals(-1.5,0.5); perldl> $kIm=$zIm->ylinvals(-1,1);

We can subset the `$kRe`

and `$kIm`

matrices with the slice method to have a better feeling of what the `xlinvals`

and `ylinvals`

functions do:

perldl> print $kRe->slice('0:4,0:4'); [ [ -1.5 -1.497998 -1.495996 -1.493994 -1.491992] [ -1.5 -1.497998 -1.495996 -1.493994 -1.491992] [ -1.5 -1.497998 -1.495996 -1.493994 -1.491992] [ -1.5 -1.497998 -1.495996 -1.493994 -1.491992] [ -1.5 -1.497998 -1.495996 -1.493994 -1.491992] ] perldl> print $kIm->slice('0:4,0:4'); [ [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1] [ -0.997998 -0.997998 -0.997998 -0.997998 -0.997998] [ -0.995996 -0.995996 -0.995996 -0.995996 -0.995996] [-0.99399399 -0.99399399 -0.99399399 -0.99399399 -0.99399399] [-0.99199199 -0.99199199 -0.99199199 -0.99199199 -0.99199199] ]

You can now start a loop to make `$niter`

iterations on the numerical calculations. The syntax of loops in Perl is very similar to the C language one:

perldl> for($j=0;$j<$niter;$j++){

The PDL prompt will change to:

..{ >

The meaning of which is that it is expecting you to introduce at some point the end of the loop.

Mathematical operations between piddles are usually performed on an element per element basis. This happens when both piddles have exactly the same dimensions. So, if you multiply or add several piddles of the same size, these operations will be performed element per element and the end result will be assigned to a matrix the same size as the original ones. You can use this property to make the iterations required for the Mandelbrot set (`z = z * z + k`

), which, when split into real and imaginary parts, looks like(see Complex Number Arithmetic):

..{ > $qRe=$zRe*$zRe-$zIm*$zIm+$kRe; ..{ > $qIm=2*$zRe*$zIm+$kIm;

You should next apply the trick of constraining the values between -5 and 5 after each iteration, this is done in PDL using the clip function:

..{ > $zRe=$qRe->clip(-5,5); ..{ > $zIm=$qIm->clip(-5,5);

And now introduce the end of the loop:

..{ > }

The calculations will take a few seconds on a relatively modern PC. When the computations are finished the PDL prompt will appear again.

Perl is a modular language with the possibility of loading other modules if needed. To plot the fractal you’ll need to load two modules with the use statement:

perldl> use PDL::Graphics::PGPLOT::Window; perldl> use PDL::Graphics::LUT;

You can now open a window for plotting:

perldl> $w=PDL::Graphics::PGPLOT::Window->new(Device=>'/xserve');

If everything works perfectly, an empty window should show up on your screen. You can now select a color palette and calculate the final image:

perldl> $w->ctab( lut_data('rainbow2') ); perldl> $image=log( sqrt($zRe**2+$zIm**2) + 1);

Now you are finally ready to plot the Mandelbrot fractal:

perldl> $w->imag($image);

An image similar to the one in figure 1 should show up. As you have seen, making numerical calculations in PDL is easy and straightforward. Making plots of your data is also a breeze.

All these PDL statements, which you have just seen, can be compiled in a Perl program called `mandel.pl`

, which appears in the listing below.

#!/usr/bin/env perl # PDL code to generate a Mandelbrot fractal use PDL; use PDL::Graphics::PGPLOT::Window; use PDL::Graphics::LUT; # Number of points in side of image and # number of iterations in the Mandelbrot # fractal calculation $npts=1000; $niter=51; # Generating z = 0 (real and # imaginary part) $zRe=zeroes(double,$npts,$npts); $zIm=zeroes(double,$npts,$npts); # Generating the constant k (real and # imaginary part) $kRe=$zRe->xlinvals(-1.5,0.5); $kIm=$zIm->ylinvals(-1,1); # Iterating print "Calculating Mandel\n"; for($j=0;$j<$niter;$j++){ # Calculating q = z*z + k in complex space # q is a temporary variable to store the result $qRe=$zRe*$zRe-$zIm*$zIm+$kRe; $qIm=2*$zRe*$zIm+$kIm; # Assigning the q values to z constraining between # -5 and 5 to avoid numerical divergences $zRe=$qRe->clip(-5,5); $zIm=$qIm->clip(-5,5); } # Lines below this one are commented out when making # the benchmark. # Generating plot print "Generating plot\n"; # Opening a window for plotting $w=PDL::Graphics::PGPLOT::Window->new(Device=>'/xserve'); # Changing the color palette $w->ctab( lut_data('rainbow2') ); # Generating the image to plot $image=log( sqrt($zRe**2+$zIm**2) + 1); # Plotting the image $w->imag($image);

## Zooming into the Mandelbrot fractal

It is now very easy to zoom into the Mandelbrot fractal by “zooming” into the initial `k`

values. You can achieve this by changing the initial `k`

assignment to:

# Generating the constant k $kRe=$zRe->xlinvals(0.34,0.44); $kIm=$zIm->ylinvals(0.29,0.39);

The result is shown in figure 2.

## More on PDL

There is more to PDL than what you have just seen here. One of the features that makes it powerful and sets it apart from other languages, is the behaviour of the mathematical operators when the matrices involved do not have the same dimensions. These properties are fairly well described in the PDL indexing manual page and will not be discussed in detail here.

Another important feature is the many functions it has for manipulating array sizes and contents. We have seen some of them like `zeroes`

and `xlinvals`

, but there are many others that make array programming life much easier than with other equivalent languages.

There are some excellent introductions to PDL. Some of them are listed in the bibliography.

But it’s time now to look at the competition.

# IDL

**IDL is a proprietary and certainly not free number-crunching-oriented language very similar to PDL**

IDL is a proprietary and certainly not free number-crunching-oriented language very similar to PDL. The mathematical operators are mainly used on an element per element basis like PDL. Although, naturally, other types of operations exist, like matrix multiplication. The IDL version of the Mandelbrot program is shown in the listing below. The comments in the code listing give an explanation of its contents.

pro mandel ; IDL code to generate a Mandelbrot fractal ; Number of points in side of image and ; number of iterations in the Mandelbrot ; fractal calculation npts=1000 niter=51 ; Generating z = 0 (real and ; imaginary part) zRe=dblarr(npts,npts) zIm=dblarr(npts,npts) ; Generating the constant k (real and ; imaginary part) a=dindgen(npts,npts) kRe=a mod npts kIm=float(floor(a/npts)) kRe=kRe*2.0/(npts-1.)-1.5 kIm=kIm*2.0/(npts-1.)-1 ; Iterating print,"Calculating Mandel" for j=1,niter do begin ; Calculating q = z*z + k in complex space ; q is a temporary variable to store the result qRe=zRe*zRe-zIm*zIm+kRe qIm=2*zRe*zIm+kIm ; Assigning the q values to z constraining between ; -5 and 5 to avoid numerical divergences zRe = qRe < 5 zRe = zRe > (-5.) zIm = qIm < 5 zIm = zIm > (-5.) end ; Lines below this one are commented out when making ; the benchmark. ; Generating plot print,"Generating plot" ; Opening a window for plotting device,decomposed=0,retain=2 Window,0,Xsize=400,Ysize=400 ; Generating the image to plot image=alog( sqrt(Re^2+Im^2) + 1) ; Plotting the image tvscl,image end

# MATLAB

**MATLAB is a proprietary language mainly targeted at mathematical calculations**

MATLAB is a proprietary language mainly targeted at mathematical calculations. It is well suited for two dimensional matrices but can also work efficiently with higher dimensional matrices. It is also, as will be shown in the benchmarks, a relatively slow executing language. One of its advantages being that it has a huge number of easy to use mathematical functions available, from ordinary differential equation solving, to minimisation problems, etc. In the following listing you can see the Mandelbrot program in MATLAB with comments explaining the code.

% MATLAB and Octave code to generate a Mandelbrot fractal % Number of points in side of image and % number of iterations in the Mandelbrot % fractal calculation npts=1000; niter=51; % Generating z = 0 (real and % imaginary part) zRe=zeros(npts,npts); zIm=zeros(npts,npts); % Generating the constant k (real and % imaginary part) kRe=repmat(linspace(-1.5,0.5,npts),npts,1); kIm=repmat(linspace(-1,1,npts)',1,npts); % Iterating for j=1:niter % Calculating q = z*z + k in complex space % q is a temporary variable to store the result qRe=zRe.*zRe-zIm.*zIm+kRe; qIm=2.*zRe.*zIm+kIm; % Assigning the q values to z constraining between % -5 and 5 to avoid numerical divergences zRe=qRe; qgtfive= find(qRe > 5.); zRe(qgtfive)=5.; qltmfive=find(qRe<-5.); zRe(qltmfive)=-5.; zIm=qIm; hgtfive=find(qIm>5.); zIm(hgtfive)=5.; hltmfive=find(qIm<-5.); zIm(hltmfive)=-5.; end % Lines below this one are commented out when making % the benchmark. % Generating plot % Generating the image to plot ima=log( sqrt(zRe.*zRe+zIm.*zIm) + 1); % Plotting the image imagesc(ima); exit

# Octave

**Octave is a free software clone of MATLAB**

Octave is a free software clone of MATLAB. In fact, its main advantage is that it’s an almost perfect clone of MATLAB. Some code written for MATLAB will most probably run with very few hitches, if any, in Octave. In fact, the Octave Mandelbrot example is exactly the same as the MATLAB one, shown in the previous MATLAB listing. Being such a perfect MATLAB clone it shares all of MATLAB’s advantages and all its disadvantages like its speed. The only exception being its price.

# C and FORTRAN77

C and FORTRAN77 are low-level languages, which do not compare well in developing time with the other numerical calculation and plotting languages, but are certainly very fast in execution time. They have been included here for the benchmark comparison just to give an idea of how much slower the high-level languages are by comparison to these low-level, more traditional languages. The following listing shows the Mandelbrot program in C.

#include <stdio.h> #include <math.h> // Number of points in side of image #define NPTS 1000 int main(void) { double zRe[NPTS][NPTS]; double zIm[NPTS][NPTS]; double kRe[NPTS][NPTS]; double kIm[NPTS][NPTS]; double qRe[NPTS][NPTS]; double qIm[NPTS][NPTS]; long int i,j,k,niter; // Number of iterations in the Mandelbrot // fractal calculation niter=51; for (i=0;i<NPTS;i++) { for (j=0;j<NPTS;j++) { // Generating z = 0 (real and // imaginary part) zRe[i][j]=0.; zIm[i][j]=0.; // Generating the constant k (real and // imaginary part) kRe[i][j]=(double)i*2.0/((double)NPTS-1.)-1.5; kIm[i][j]=(double)j*2.0/((double)NPTS-1.)-1.; } } // Iterating //printf("Calculating Mandel\n"); for(k=0;k<niter;k++){ for (i=0;i<NPTS;i++) { for (j=0;j<NPTS;j++) { // Calculating q = z*z + k in complex space // q is a temporary variable to store the result qRe[i][j]=zRe[i][j]*zRe[i][j]-zIm[i][j]*zIm[i][j]+kRe[i][j]; qIm[i][j]=2.*zRe[i][j]*zIm[i][j]+kIm[i][j]; // Assigning the q values to z constraining between // -5 and 5 to avoid numerical divergences zRe[i][j]=qRe[i][j]; zIm[i][j]=qIm[i][j]; if (zRe[i][j] < -5.) zRe[i][j]=-5.; if (zRe[i][j] > 5.) zRe[i][j]=5.; if (zIm[i][j] < -5.) zIm[i][j]=-5.; if (zIm[i][j] > 5.) zIm[i][j]=5.; } } } // Lines below this one are commented out when making // the benchmark. // Writing image to STDOUT for (i=0;i<NPTS;i++) { for (j=0;j<NPTS;j++) { printf("%f ",log( sqrt(zRe[i][j]*zRe[i][j]+zIm[i][j]*zIm[i][j]) + 1.)); } printf("\n"); } }

The listing in FORTRAN is shown below.

program mandel ! FORTRAN77 code to generate a Mandelbrot fractal implicit none integer npts ! Number of points in side of image parameter (npts=1000) real*8 zRe(npts,npts) real*8 zIm(npts,npts) real*8 kRe(npts,npts) real*8 kIm(npts,npts) real*8 qRe(npts,npts) real*8 qIm(npts,npts) integer i,j,k,niter ! Number of iterations in the Mandelbrot ! fractal calculation niter=51 do j=1,npts do i=1,npts ! Generating z = 0 (real and ! imaginary part) zRe(i,j)=0. zIm(i,j)=0. ! Generating the constant k (real and ! imaginary part) kRe(i,j)=dble(i)*2.0/(dble(npts)-1.)-1.5 kIm(i,j)=dble(j)*2.0/(dble(npts)-1.)-1. enddo enddo ! Iterating ! print *,"Calculating Mandel" do k=1,niter do j=1,npts do i=1,npts ! Calculating q = z*z + k in complex space ! q is a temporary variable to store the result qRe(i,j)=zRe(i,j)*zRe(i,j)-zIm(i,j)*zIm(i,j)+kRe(i,j); qIm(i,j)=2.*zRe(i,j)*zIm(i,j)+kIm(i,j); ! Assigning the q values to z constraining between ! -5 and 5 to avoid numerical divergences zRe(i,j)=qRe(i,j); zIm(i,j)=qIm(i,j); if (zRe(i,j) < -5.) zRe(i,j)=-5.; if (zRe(i,j) > 5.) zRe(i,j)=5.; if (zIm(i,j) < -5.) zIm(i,j)=-5.; if (zIm(i,j) > 5.) zIm(i,j)=5.; enddo enddo enddo ! Lines below this one are commented out when making ! the benchmark. ! Writing image to STDOUT do i=1,npts do j=1,npts print *,log( sqrt(zRe(i,j)*zRe(i,j)+zIm(i,j)*zIm(i,j)) + 1.) enddo enddo end program mandel

# Qualitative comparison table

Table 1 below summarises the qualitative aspects mentioned in the previous sections.

Explanations for the table columns are:

**Language**: the name of the language.**Version**: the version number of the language used in the benchmark test.**Flags**: compilation flags or command line switches used in the benchmark test.**High-level**: whether the language is a high-level, array-oriented, numerical calculation language or not.**Syntax**: the consistency of the syntax for the language statements and availability of array manipulation functions to avoid loops on array indices.**Math and I/O functions**: availability of mathematical functions and scientific file format reading functions.**Price**: free software or highly priced.

Language | Version | Flags | High level | Syntax | Math and I/O functions | Price |

C | gcc 3.3.5 20050117 (pre-release) | -O3 | No | Bad | Bad | Free |

FORTRAN77 | gcc version 3.3.5 20050117 (pre-release) | -O3 | No | Bad | Bad | Free |

PDL | 2.4.1 | None | Yes | Good | Fair | Free |

IDL | 6.2 linux x86 m32 | None | Yes | Fair | Good | High |

MATLAB | 7.1.0.183 (R14) Service Pack 3 | -nodisplay -nojvm | Yes | Fair | Good | High |

Octave | 2.1.64 (i686-Suse-Linux) | None | Yes | Fair | Good | Free |

# Benchmarks

**Benchmarks are a tricky business**

Benchmarks are a tricky business. This is specially the case for matrix oriented languages like the ones shown here.

Explicit loops through matrix indices or if-statements should be avoided, since these statements can sometimes make the code much slower.

Most of the functions of these languages are very high-level ones, which perform several more or less complex tasks. Choosing some functions over others that globally provide the same numerical result can have a relatively high impact in the benchmark. A clear example is the implementation of the equivalent of the PDL clip function in MATLAB and Octave. Depending on the implementation adopted, one language was faster than the other. In this article, the solution that seems more natural to MATLAB programmers was adopted, but this technique, as seen in figure 3, gives some advantage to MATLAB. Whereas, the other solution (not shown here) gave Octave a slight advantage. Another example is the loop order in the C and FORTRAN languages. If the loop order of the matrix indices (i and j) is reversed a significant performance penalty is obtained.

In any case, this benchmark can serve the purpose of giving an order of magnitude of the execution speeds of each one of the languages, revealing whether they are comparable or not.

The system used was a PC with an Intel Pentium 4 processor running at 2.8GHz, with a cache size of 1024Kb and 512MB of RAM. The operating system was SuSE Linux 9.3 (i586) with kernel version `2.6.11.4-21.15-2mp`

.

In this benchmark, I have run the exact code that has been shown in the listings provided in this article, taking into account the following comments:

- Since these are number-crunching languages it seems reasonable to test them with big arrays. To obtain better accuracies in the benchmarks we have iterated the Mandelbrot algorithm many times. Thus, the benchmarks were done with
`$npts=2000`

and`$niter=1000`

. This effectively means that the benchmarks are done on 2000 x 2000 arrays and 1000 iterations. - The plotting routines were not included in the tests, only the number-crunching part. As highlighted in the comments in the code listings, the last lines of the code, which plot the graph, were commented out in the benchmarks.
- To measure the execution time the
`time`

command was used. The final result shown in figure 3 is the sum of the system plus user time. To make the comparisons similar, in the case of C and FORTRAN, compilation times of the code has also been added to the final benchmark time. In any case, because of the long time spent in the 1000 iterations, this compilation or start-up time for any of the languages tested is really negligible compared with the total time. - The particular version of languages and compilation flags is shown in table 1.

# Conclusion

High-level, matrix-oriented languages are a useful tool to develop projects with heavy numerical calculations or which require scientific plotting. With them it is relatively easy to obtain fast development cycles. This feature has been illustrated by generating the Mandelbrot fractal.

The qualitative comparison of several of these types of languages (PDL, IDL, MATLAB and Octave) can best be seen in table 1. Needless to say that such a comparison is very subjective.

The benchmarks on the examples (see figure 3) provided here show that some high-level, array-oriented languages like IDL or PDL, when properly coded to avoid array index loops and if statements, are only about three to four times slower than the faster, low-level languages like C or FORTRAN77. MATLAB and Octave perform similarly and they are clearly slower than IDL or PDL.

**PDL wins hands down. It provides nearly the same or better capabilities than other more expensive proprietary solutions**

From my personal point of view, PDL wins hands down. It provides nearly the same or better capabilities than other more expensive proprietary solutions. In particular, the mathematical and I/O functions provided by PDL are nearly equivalent to the ones from proprietary solutions and, in the case of array manipulation and language syntax, PDL is better. This comparison has no colour when price is considered, free vs. expensive. With PDL you will certainly never get a message like “No license available to run this software”, not to mention the risks of basing your programming projects on the decisions of the owners of the proprietary languages.

## Comments

## AWESOME!!!

Very nice article! I've never heard of PDL, though I do computational math (not numerical) everyday. I'm definitely going to find a use for it now.

## Matalb and Octave code

Last line in MATLAB and Octave code, i.e., 'exit' causes that Matlab exits; hence, it is not possible to look at this fractal image.

mWo

## It helps to know the problem you're solving a bit better.

Let me preface this by saying that PDL looks neat. But,

You're iterating over the whole image with every iteration, doing gobs of work for pixels/locations that have diverged. I don't believe that there is any useful information retained by your clamping-to-5 step. (It is pretty, though!) With Mandelbrot, if the distance from the origin is > 2 then divergence to infinity is inevitable. The Mandelbrot set itself is defined as those starting values which never diverge to infinity; I think but am not sure that your clamping makes it impossible to tell even what is in/out of the set.

(( I believe the canonical/typical coloring is based on #-of-iterations-before-divergence for those pixels that diverge and black for those that don't. ))

Here is a patch (sorry about lost whitespace/indenting):

37,39c37,39

< for(k=0;k < niter;k++){

< for (i=0;i < NPTS;i++) {

< for (j=0;j < NPTS;j++) {

---

> for (i=0;i < NPTS;i++) {

> for (j=0;j < NPTS;j++) {

> for(k=0;k < niter;k++){

48,52c48,51

< if (zRe[i][j] < -5.) zRe[i][j]=-5.;

< if (zRe[i][j] > 5.) zRe[i][j]=5.;

< if (zIm[i][j] < -5.) zIm[i][j]=-5.;

< if (zIm[i][j] > 5.) zIm[i][j]=5.;

---

> if (zRe[i][j]* zRe[i][j] + zIm[i][j]*zIm[i][j] > 4.) // Divergence criteria

> break;

How much improvement? 2000x2000 array of points, 1000 iterations, my laptop/gcc 4.1.2 (Note: I had to add 'static' to the local arrays to make it work):

- Old: 4m46.654s

- New: 0m16.373s

C wins again! ;)

I don't know how to get this speedup effect in any of the "whole-array" approaches/languages. (Probably because I don't know them well at all.) It seems hard to get any effect other than foreach(iteration) { foreach(location in image) { /*..do something.. */ } } ; with this order of operations there's no way to bail out of iterations early at diverging locations.

I would speculate that, for this problem, plain old perl would be faster than your PDL approach... ;)

## Poor matlab/octave implementation

If you replace the lines like

qgtfive= find(qRe > 5.);

zRe(qgtfive)=5.;

with

zRe(qRe>5)=5

at least in Octave the code is about twice as fast. I believe the same indexing trick can be used in recent versions of matlab as well. You are basically getting your speed improvement from the PDL clip function.

D.

## Dan, Something like

Dan,

Something like

function z = mandel

npts=1000;

niter=51;

z=zeros(npts,npts);

[kRe,kIm] = meshgrid(linspace(-1.5,.5,npts),linspace(-1,1,npts));

k = kRe + 1i*kIm;

idx = [1:npts*npts];

while (niter)

z(idx) = z(idx).^ 2 + k(idx);

idx(abs(z(idx))>2) = [];

niter = niter - 1;

end

end

will do it for Octave/Matlab. However, at least in Octave the above indexed assignment can be quite expensive, and so the above is actually slower for this example. It might be faster with matlab...

D.

## indexed assignment

Hi David and Dan,

Here too, you can avoid indexed assignment by using a logical mask which is much faster in octave.

Cheers,

Alex

octave:7> tic; z=mandel(); toc;

Elapsed time is 43.521179 seconds.

octave:8> tic; z2=mandel2(); toc;

Elapsed time is 24.081490 seconds.

octave:9> max(abs(z(:)-z2(:)))

ans = 0

function z = mandel2

npts=1000;

niter=51;

z=zeros(npts,npts);

[kRe,kIm] = meshgrid(linspace(-1.5,.5,npts),linspace(-1,1,npts));

k = kRe + 1i*kIm;

while (niter)

mask = abs(z) < 2;

z(mask) = z(mask).^ 2 + k(mask);

niter = niter - 1;

end

## David,

That looks like it might work. Do octave/matlab have a way to apply a function to each element of a 2d array? Then the solution becomes very nice and clear, just creating a per-pixel 'mandelbrot' function and then applying it to each element of the (complex) image matrix.

## Fortran 95 is a huge improvement over Fortran 77

gcc 4.x now provides for Fortran 90/95, which has a syntax similar to Matlab/Octave. A good Fortran 95 compiler should provide the ease of development of Matlab, with the speed quoted for Fortran 77. While you have the claim that Fortran is not rich in IO & maths functions you omit that there is more maths code in Fortran than in any other language - Netlib and Statlib being two of the best examples. I agree that Fortran is not terribly good for graphical IO.

## I think C wins

Personally, i think C wins. I have to be honest and say that as a first approach to explore the problem I use the Matlab that my university provides me, but when it comes to flexibility, control, speed of execution and the ability to share code with my peers at the university, then C is the choice. Needless to say that there are available free paralelization tools to Fortran and C, and even though they need high computer skills, let's face it: if you are coping with mathematical, numerical computation software, high chances are that you are computer skilled.

I know, there's a lot of people (biologists, finance people, etc.) But you should look at the present in science, sneak into the current research journals and note that there's a tendency to people get more and more skilled in performing in silico simulations, coming from very different fields, not only math or computer science.

Nah!, IMHO, C (Fortran, if you like it better) win.

## A different c implementation.

Compile with: gcc -lm -lpng mandlebrot.c .I used gcc 4.2.0.

#include <stdio.h>

#include <math.h>

#include <png.h>

#define NPTS 1000 //=width=height

png_uint_16 img[NPTS][NPTS][3];

void genImg();

void addPixel();

void writePng();

int main(void){ genImg(); writePng(); return 0; }

void genImg() {

int i,j,k,niter;

double zRe, zIm, kRe, kIm, qRe, qIm;

niter=51; // Number of iterations

for (i=0;i<NPTS;i++) {

for (j=0;j<NPTS;j++) {

// Generating z = 0 (real and imaginary part)

zRe=0.;

zIm=0.;

// Generating the constant k (real and imaginary part)

kRe=(double)i*2.0/((double)NPTS-1.)-1.5;

kIm=(double)j*2.0/((double)NPTS-1.)-1.;

//Iterating

for (k=0;k<niter;k++){

// Calculating q = z*z + k in complex space

// q is a temporary variable to store the result

qRe=zRe*zRe-zIm*zIm+kRe;

qIm=2.*zRe*zIm+kIm;

// Assigning the q values to z constraining between

// -10 and 10 to avoid numerical divergences

zRe=qRe;

zIm=qIm;

if (zRe < -10.) zRe=-10.; if (zRe > 10.) zRe=10.; if (zIm < -10.) zIm=-10.; if (zIm > 10.) zIm=10.;

}

addPixel(i,j,zRe,zIm);

}

}

}

void addPixel(int i, int j, double zRe, double zIm){

img[i][j][0] = (png_uint_16)(sin(log( sqrt(zRe*zRe+zIm*zIm)))*65536);

img[i][j][1] = (png_uint_16)(cos(log( sqrt(zRe*zRe+zIm*zIm)))*65536);

img[i][j][2] = (png_uint_16)(log( sqrt(zRe*zRe+zIm*zIm))*65536);

}

void writePng(){

FILE *fp = fopen("mandle.png", "wb");

png_structp png_ptr = png_create_write_struct(PNG_LIBPNG_VER_STRING, (png_voidp)NULL, NULL, NULL);

png_infop info_ptr = png_create_info_struct(png_ptr);

png_set_IHDR(png_ptr, info_ptr, NPTS, NPTS, 16, PNG_COLOR_TYPE_RGB, PNG_INTERLACE_NONE, PNG_COMPRESSION_TYPE_DEFAULT, PNG_FILTER_TYPE_DEFAULT);

png_init_io(png_ptr, fp);

png_write_info(png_ptr, info_ptr);

png_set_swap(png_ptr); //big -> little endian

int i; for (i=0;i<NPTS;i++){ png_write_row(png_ptr, (png_bytep)img[i]); }

png_write_end(png_ptr,info_ptr);

png_destroy_write_struct(&png_ptr, &info_ptr);

}

## Other useful linux fractal resources

Well, i know nothing of all this math. How do i get up my brownie points? Here are some interesting Linux fractal resources:

1. A cool open source screensaver which also uses fractal math to do it's thing. (http://electricsheep.org/)

2. Gnofract. The author says he think's it's the best fractal package currently available for Linux. Test it and decide for yourself (http://gnofract4d.sourceforge.net/)

3. For the purists, fractals are about math. For the arty, here's some fun fractal stuff you can do in GIMP (http://gentoo-wiki.com/TIP_GIMP_Fractal_Backgrounds)

4. Fyre is a tool for producing computational artwork based on histograms of iterated chaotic functions. Source is included on the site. (http://fyre.navi.cx/)

## Some Remarks

Fortran has a complex data type which would be appropriate here.

Also there is a FOSS implementation of IDL called GNUDL.

An finally R is a very interesting language that has not been looked at in this

comparison.